Veterinary drugs

Psittacosis (psittacosis) infectious disease of humans and birds caused by the intracellular microorganism Chlamydia psittaci . Chlamydia are killed when heated above 70 °C. In the external environment, the pathogen persists up to 2 – 3 weeks, the shells of eggs in the incubator survives no more than 3 days, in the litter of birds persists for 3 – 4 months. Ultraviolet rays are harmful for chlamydia. Psittacosis is found worldwide. Susceptible ducks, turkeys, geese, chickens, pigeons, parrots, sparrows, pheasants, gulls, and other ornamental and wild species of birds. The sensitivity of different bird species varies that are most susceptible to infection of birds in the parrot family. Young animals are more sensitive than the adult bird. The source of infection is a sick bird-the carrier, releasing the microorganisms from nasal mucus, sneezing, coughing, with the dung. Infection occurs by airborne and alimentary, particles of dried droppings from sick birds, feather, slomannye the epithelium of the skin can get into the lungs, air sacks of birds, and gastrointestinal tract, where they are introduced through the mucous membranes, causing disease. A bird ill with psittacosis, usually for a long time been razed of infection. Reservoir and source of infection for humans are domestic and wild bird species. The largest epidemiological significance have Pets poultry (especially ducks and turkeys), room birds (various species of parrots, Canaries and dragapella songbirds), and especially synanthropic birds (pigeons and crows), the contamination of which by some estimates may reach 80 %. People may get infected by psittacosis from ill birds, especially at-risk poultry workers, meat processing plants, the breeders of the birds. People ill with psittacosis not a danger to others represent. In the human body, the pathogen enters mainly through the mucous membranes of the respiratory system. Infection occurs by inhalation of dust containing the pathogen (dry particles of manure and discharge from the beak contaminated with particles of fluff.

The course and symptoms in turkeys celebrate cachexia, anorexia, diarrhoea, reduced egg production, emaciation and paresis of the limbs. The ducks are more susceptible young animals 20 – 30 days of age, the disease lasts for 20 -60 days, mortality may reach 30 %. The disease is characterized by rhinitis, cough, shortness of breath and conjunctivitis. In geese, the symptoms will be similar. Pigeons have played a leading role in the spread of infection. The hatchlings have noted diarrhea, poor feathering, retarded growth. In adult pigeons, the disease is characterized by rhinitis, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, and wheezing. In adult parakeets, the disease is manifested by lack of appetite, drowsiness, conjunctivitis, weakness, diarrhea, rapidly growing intoxication and death after 1 to 2 weeks of onset. The young birds often bilateral conjunctivitis, the exudate of the beak and the cere develops photophobia, diarrhea, with the droppings may be green and yellow. Adult parrots also note the inflammation of pneumatic sacs, paralysis of the limbs. In humans the disease may begin acutely with fever up to 40.5 ºC on the first day, or gradually increase within 3 or 4 days. Psittacosis patients feel malaise, headache, loss of appetite, sometimes bursting pain in the whole body. Often there is a sharp dry cough, progression of the disease appears a small amount of mucous or bloody sputum. The cough may appear immediately or within 5 days after onset of fever. When the infection from parrot psittacosis runs longer and harder than when the infection from domestic poultry and pigeons. The diagnosis of psittacosis (psittacosis) is set on the basis of the complex epizootic data, clinical disease, pathological changes and laboratory results.

Prevention and treatment: when finding birds with psittacosis farm or farm announce affected by the virus and impose restrictions. Under the terms of the restrictions prohibited: the output (sales) and input (import) in the new economy of birds, as well as regrouping them in economy, it prohibited the collection and the laying of eggs for incubation of poultry houses in which the disease. Sick and suspicious on disease of poultry culled from the herd and kill the bloodless method. The rest of the bird is treated with tetracycline antibiotics for 10 to 14 days. Conduct a thorough mechanical cleaning and disinfection in the presence of birds in accordance with the current regulations for the aerosol disinfection of poultry houses. Eggs obtained from poultry that have the disease, is treated with ozone or with formaldehyde by a conventional method, followed by implementation in the trading network. To care for the bird appoint permanent staff. Visit these other production facilities is not allowed. Restrictions from farms (enterprises) will be removed within 30 days after the last case of detection of sick or suspicious of disease of poultry and the final veterinary-sanitary measures. For the prevention of diseases of people of the personnel affected with the disease psittacosis bird should be provided with normal protective clothing, goggles and protective gauze masks. For these persons is set constant medical supervision. In determining the disease psittacosis among humans at poultry processing company should carry out wet cleaning of the entire premises, washing of floors and equipment 5 % solution of chlorine bleach or 2 % a hot solution of alkali with simultaneous intense aeration, to only wet defeathering of carcasses, bird droppings in places of reception and detention pour 10 % solution of Lysol, and then to burn. Taking them for fertilizer and other purposes is prohibited. Persons and service personnel who work on poultry farms or bred birds, it is necessary to use personal protective equipment. Observe measures of personal hygiene, every day to clean up litter, not allowing it to dry and turn into dust to sustain the new comers to the birds in quarantine. Conduct routine diagnostic laboratory tests.