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Authors only explained in great detail the information established in the teaching curriculum. These textbooks include as many as fifteen to twenty different primary and secondary sources together with assignments and questions. This tendency changed dramatically when the publishing house Briedis published World History for the sixth grade9.
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VPU leidykla,p. Allyn 8 and Bacon, English Oxford living dictionares. Eighth grade students studying the Middle Ages are presented the following information: The second source is the painting by a 19th century artist depicting the Siege of Vienna at the Battle of Kahlenberg in These methods can also enhance student motivation.
For instance, a textbook for the fifth grade includes a topic National Minorities in Lithuania from the Establishment of the State to the Present with an assignment to find out how many different nationalities currently live in their area and what their differences and similarities with Lithuanians are What Can Coins Tell Us?
The second project The Genealogy of My Family asks students to identify their parents, grandparents, ancestral names and surnames, where they lived, their educational background, work and, finally, where they were buried.
Finally, one of the biggest innovations is the digital history textbook.
The results of this study cannot be discussed in a wider context due to the lack of similar studies. The Oxford Dictionary defines the word innovation as a new method, idea or product. Digital history textbook At the end of the previous century history teachers started using CDs in Lithuania. However, the digital textbooks did not replace the traditional textbooks, which still remain the primary teaching material.
Approximately ten historical sources were used for analysis in the case of vadovelid topic. The planning and incorporation of sources for history projects is integrated as well. Istorija ir sovietinis propagandinis balastas. First of all, it is necessary to note that Lithuanian history textbooks generally received little attention from researchers and only a few academic articles dealing with this topic were identified.
In addition, to portray the linkage between world history and the history of Lithuania, the facts about the visits of famous people to Lithuania and their thoughts about Lithuania are used.
Historical sources have information about minor events in rural areas rather than the largest cities only, and it is more pertinent to the students living in the countryside. Thus, textbooks excluding one published after were chosen for the study. What is more, in their narrative authors mention several facts about how Lithuanians were related to the Ottoman Turks: These innovations and techniques are briefly presented and discussed below.
In this new paradigm knowledge is actively constructed, discovered, transformed, and extended by students8. As a result, studies focusing on these innovations do not exist; thus, the results of this study cannot be compared with other studies. Therefore, in the Ministry of Education and Science had to change the existing istoriijos of a textbook that would include digital books as well. History Textbook for the Fifth Grade includes the topic Lithuania in Soviet Hands, which starts with the following introduction: Since a large number of illustrations with accompanying texts and assignments have been integrated into textbooks.
Furthermore, local history has found a place in textbook assignments. It presents the results of the analysis of three different textbooks for the tenth grade However, some of them appeared to be very similar; therefore, only 20 textbooks were selected for further analysis. Students were istogijos used to reading from monitors.
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What is more, the author did not carry out a survey of students, which could give the insights into how effective these innovations are. Recently, they have attempted to include new methods with the aim of creating appealing history textbooks for students and teachers. The aforementioned CD was perhaps the first type of history textbook for the seventh through twelfth grades in Europe.
This CD did not receive a textbook status but it conformed to the existing history curriculum, which included three main parts: The history textbooks also include various questions and assignments to enhance learning motivation and self-check. First of all, not all history textbooks were analysed. Using this technique, students find out that a large number of place names in some cases they refer to the places where the students themselves live originated because of iron used in bygone ages Since the teaching curriculums have been structured in a way that 10 per cent of class time 7—8 lessons for fifth graders should be dedicated to local history After Lithuania regained its independence from the Soviet Union, the content and curriculum of Lithuanian textbooks was updated leading to the publication of better textbooks.
Based on French and western models, an attempt was made to use various sources for each topic, including documents, diagrams, maps, and photographs. Students realise that history can be closer to them. Babylon, Persia3 describing and characterising historical characters e. However, some difficulties arose. Some authors analysed various aspects of history textbooks in periodicals but their studies are not supported by the primary research and remain highly controversial.
They identify the contributions of the famous and well known personalities from their area.
Briedis also offers a variety of assignments and projects for lower grades.