PROGRAMMABLE DMA CONTROLLER – INTEL • It is a device to transfer the data directly between IO device and memory without through the CPU. Direct memory access with DMA controller / Suppose any device which is connected at input-output port wants to transfer data to transfer data to. The Intel* is a 4-channel direct memory access (DMA) controller. It is specifically designed to simplify the transfer of data at high speeds for the Intel®.
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These are the four sma channel DMA request inputs, which are used by the peripheral devices for using DMA services. The output acts as a chip select for the peripheral device requesting service.
DMA Controller 8257
A DMA controller can also transfer data from memory conttoller a port. This is an asynchronous input used to insert wait states during DMA read or write machine cycles. It is an active-low chip select line. In Direct Memory Access technique, the data transfer takes place without the intervention of CPU, so there must be a controller circuit which is programmable dma controller 8257 which can perform dma controller 8257 data transfer effectively.
It is active low bidirectional three-state line. It can operate both in slave and master mode.
Microprocessor DMA Controller
The mark will be activated after each cycles or dma controller 8257 multiples of it from the beginning. Dna mode set register is shown in Fig. It is an active-low bidirectional tri-state input line, which is used by the CPU to read internal registers of in the Slave mode.
These are the active-low DMA acknowledge lines, which updates the requesting peripheral about the status of their request by the CPU. This block controls the sequence operations during all DMA cycles by generating the appropriate control signals and 16 bit address that specifies the memory relations to be accessed. It is the low memory read signal, which is used to read the data from the addressed memory locations during DMA read cycles.
It is the hold acknowledgement signal which indicates the DMA controller that the bus has been granted to the requesting peripheral by the CPU when it is set to 1.
As the transfer contoller handled totally by hardware, it is much faster than software program instructions. There are also two dma controller 8257 registers one is the mode set register and the other is status register. In the master mode, these lines are used to send dma controller 8257 byte of the generated address to the latch.
The TC bits dma controller 8257 the status word are cleared when the status word is read or when the receives a Reset input. But in the controller priority mode the priority of the channels has a circular sequence and after each DMA cycle, the priority of each channel changes. In the Slave mode, it carries command words to and status word from These four address lines are tri-stated outputs which contains 4 to 7 of the 16 bit memory address dma controller 8257 by the during all DMA cycles.
Cotnroller is an active low bi-directional tri-state line. In the master mode, they are outputs, which constitute the most significant 4 bits of the dma controller 8257 bit memory address generated by the The microprocessor then completes the current machine cycle and then goes to HOLD state, where the address bus, data bus and the related control bus signals are tri-stated. This is the clock output of the microprocessor.
It is an asynchronous input from the microprocessor which disables all DMA channels by clearing the mode register and tri-states all control lines. It is the active-low three state signal which is used to write the data to the dma controller 8257 memory dma controller 8257 during DMA write operation.
After this, the bus is released to handle the memory data transfer during the remaining DMA cycle. In the master mode, it is used to load the data to the peripheral devices during DMA memory read cycle. The value loaded into the low order 14 bits of the terminal count register specifies the number of DMA cycles minus one before the terminal count output is activated.
The DMA controller which is a slave to the microprocessor so far will now become the master. Each channel has two 16 bit registers. In the master mode, dma controller 8257 is used to read data from the peripheral devices during a memory write cycle.
These least significant four address lines are bidirectional. In slave mode, it is an input, which allows microprocessor to write. This signal is used to receive the hold request signal from the output device.
The request priorities are decided internally. By setting the 4th bit we can opt for dma controller 8257 priority. This output line requests the control of the system bus.
The update flag is not affected by a status read operation. These are the four least significant address lines.
Microprocessor – 8257 DMA Controller
The different signals are. Now the HLDA signal is activated. In the master mode, they are dja four least significant memory address output lines generated by