Voltage Multipliers and the Cockcroft-Walton generator. Jason Merritt and Sam Asare. 1. Background. Voltage multipliers are circuits – typically consisting of. Abstract—This paper primarily describes a Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier circuit. The objective of the project is to design a voltage multiplier which should. 31 Jul Even though the half-wave Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (H-W C-W VM) is one of the most common ac-dc step-up topologies, VM.

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Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipmentvol. The features of different VMs as rise time, ripple, and output voltage are compared to each other with regard to the complexity of the topologies and number of components.

Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Abstract Decades after invention of the Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier, it is nultiplier being used in broad range of high voltage and ac to dc applications. However, this is not the case in presence of a load, which output voltage ripple exists and there is a drop in voltage due to the load current.

In Figure 4 the output voltage ripple for two different conditions has been shown. It is true that SVM1 has the lowest absolute value of ripple.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Therefore the ripple still exists; however, its magnitude decreases greatly.

So, despite the difficulties and cost of high voltage prototypes, in performance comparison, there is no difference between several kilovolts or few volts VMs.

There are several approaches in producing high voltage dc sources depending on cockceoft desired voltage and current levels.

High voltage ratio, low voltage stress on mltiplier, compactness, and high efficiency are its main features. For substantial loads, the charge on the capacitors is partially depleted, and the output voltage drops according to the output current divided by the capacitance.


Therefore, for those topologies which need one secondary winding, the voltage would be twice of those with two secondary windings.

Cockcroft–Walton generator

To verify the simulation results, prototypes of VMs have been constructed. CW multipliers are typically used to develop higher voltages for relatively low-current applications, such as bias voltages ranging from tens or hundreds of volts to millions of volts for high-energy physics experiments or lightning safety testing.

However, based on previously mentioned symmetrical behavior, it has lower voltage ripple and drop values. As expected, BVM has maximum peak-to-peak value of ripple with 3. Nonideality of the components that are considered in simulations is ESR of capacitorsdiodes forward voltage drop 0.

Compared to a conventional one Figure 1 it has two voltage sources two secondary windings and the same number of capacitors and diodes. In this comparison, some factors as voltage stress on components, number of components, and transformer construction cost are considered. This circuit can be extended to any number of stages. Figure 1 shows a basic 4-stage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier circuit. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. It is clear that the operation of the VMs depends on the capacitors value, frequency of operation, number of stages, and load resistor.

It must be emphasized that the voltage stress on components in topologies depends on the transformer voltage. However voltag separate transformers and several times of components are needed, which make the circuit more costly and bulky [ 214 ].


Full wave Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier

With simulations and experimental prototypes, the responses of VMs were compared. The ripple of such 3-phase VM will be lower than that of two-phase symmetrical VMs. As the number of stages is increased, the voltages of the higher stages begin to “sag”, primarily due to the electrical impedance of the capacitors in the lower stages.

Myltiplier fact, in each application based on the level of output voltage and therefore components price, with similar method used in Table 1it is possible to compare the VMs and, therefore, to choose which of them is suitable for the proposed application. Multiplierr CW multiplier has the disadvantage of having very poor voltage regulation, that is, the voltage drops rapidly as a function the output current.


In this paper a review over and a comparison between symmetrical versions of VMs were carried out. The maximum achievable frequency of operation clearly depends on rise time of the VM. In no-load condition we have. However, it did not get attention for a long time until Cockcroft and Walton performed their experiment using this circuit in [ 12 ]. It is known that the asymmetry of both volatge voltages and cockcrift elements can cause the ripple [ 21 ].

The author has not discussed this matter [ 1 ]. After the input voltage is turned on.

Cockcroft–Walton generator – Wikipedia

Furthermore its transformer has the mentioned problem of extra voltage imposed between windings. However, in mobile apparatus and some low voltage applications, they still can be used.

Symmetrical voltage multipliers are introduced in Section 3. It means, for a given transformer, to have same level of output voltage, the number of elements is about two times of ordinary CWVM. To be clear, in Figure 2simulation result of a basic half-wave Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier circuit, by Saber Synopsys software, is given. The no-load output voltage is twice the peak input voltage multiplied by the number of stages N or equivalently the peak-to-peak input voltage swing V pp times the number of stages.

Historically the original idea was proposed by Greinacher in